储能科学与技术 ›› 2020, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (1): 239-248.doi: 10.12028/j.issn.2095-4239.2019.0157

• 储能测试与评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

三元锂离子动力电池热失控及火灾特性研究

羡学磊(), 董海斌(), 张少禹, 李毅, 刘连喜, 于东兴, 盛彦锋, 伊程毅, 韩光   

  1. 应急管理部天津消防研究所,天津 300381
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-11 修回日期:2019-07-29 出版日期:2020-01-05 发布日期:2019-08-05
  • 通讯作者: 董海斌 E-mail:xianxuelei@tfri.com.cn;donghaibin@tfri.com.cn
  • 作者简介:羡学磊(1987—),男,硕士,助理研究员,从事消防科学与技术工作,E-mail:xianxuelei@tfri.com.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFB0104000)

Thermal runaway and fire characteristics of NCM lithium-ion power battery

Xuelei XIAN(), Haibin DONG(), Shaoyu ZHANG, Yi LI, Lianxi LIU, Dongxing YU, Yanfeng SHENG, Chengyi YI, Guang HAN   

  1. Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM, Tianjin 300381, China
  • Received:2019-07-11 Revised:2019-07-29 Online:2020-01-05 Published:2019-08-05
  • Contact: Haibin DONG E-mail:xianxuelei@tfri.com.cn;donghaibin@tfri.com.cn

摘要:

本工作以电动乘用车软包三元(NCM)动力锂离子电池为研究对象,通过温度电压数据采集及高速摄像的方法,在开放空间下开展了加热和过充触发条件下的电池热失控实验,研究了电池热失控、爆喷及火灾过程中温度电压的变化规律、爆喷及火灾特性。结果表明,加热触发条件下,起主导的副反应是正极与电解液,产生的大量氧气和碳氢化合物可燃气体,导致电池从鼓胀到爆喷仅用了0.5 s,且直接出现喷射火,位置在靠近极耳的铝膜处;过充触发条件下,起主导的副反应是负极与电解液产生的大量碳氢化合物可燃气体,故在极耳处持续爆喷电解液的固液气混合物一段时间后,才被点燃形成喷射火。两种条件下的电池燃烧持续时间均未超过50 s,爆喷过程中温度最高约为700 ℃,燃烧残余物温度不低于500 ℃,爆喷前电压均未出现明显变化。根据与以往学者的实验数据比对,NCM电池系列中,安全性由高到低排序为333、622、811。本研究有助于为高比能动力锂离子电池的实际应用、热失控火灾防控及预警技术提供实验依据。

关键词: 锂离子电池, 热失控, 火灾, 爆喷, 高速摄影

Abstract:

Nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM) lithium-ion batteries were selected for usage in electric passenger vehicles to study the variation in temperature, voltage, and characteristics of explosion venting and fire during thermal runaway. Battery thermal runaway and fire tests were performed during overheating and overcharging by temperature and voltage measurements and high-speed photography. The tests determined the relation between the temperature and voltage variation laws and the explosion venting process. Under overheating conditions, the dominant side reaction involved the positive electrode and electrolyte, resulting in the production of large amounts of oxygen and combustible hydrocarbons, and the time span from battery expansion to explosion venting near the electrode tab was only 0.5 s, during which a jet flame initially appeared. Under overcharging conditions, the dominant side reaction involved the negative electrode and electrolyte; this initially produced a solid-liquid-gas mixture during explosion venting and formed a jet flame after a period of continuous venting. Under the two trigger conditions, the battery burning times were less than 50 s, the highest temperatures were approximately 700 °C, the combustion residue temperatures exceeded 500 °C, and the voltages did not change significantly before explosion venting. When compared with the experimental data obtained by previous scholars, the safety of the NCM battery series is ranked from 333, 622, 811 from high to low. This study provides an experimental basis for the practical application, thermal runaway fire prevention, and early warning technology for high-specific-energy lithium-ion batteries.

Key words: lithium-ion battery, thermal runaway, fire, explosive venting, high-speed photography

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